Here you will find all the different health markers that appear in our health tests and health checks. The health markers are analyzed to monitor the state of health, prevent diseases and evaluate the efficiency of processes in the body. Examples of biomarkers include blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, specific proteins and hormones.


Amino acid


Homocysteine is an amino acid that is formed from methionine and is influenced by nutrition and genetics. High levels in the blood are associated with an increased risk of health problems.


Hepatitis C marker

HCV antibodies

HCV antibodies, a crucial component of the body's immune response to the hepatitis C virus, play a critical role in determining previous exposure to the virus and closely monitoring the infection.


IVF screening marker

HTLV-1/2 antibodies

HTLV-1/2-ak, or HTLV-1/2 antibodies, are specific antibodies with a crucial role in medical diagnostics. They are used to identify and assess infections and immunity to HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 viruses. This biomarker is also relevant in reproductive medicine, particularly in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.


Hepatitis B marker

Hepatitis B core antibodies

Hepatitis B core antibodies (HBc-Ab) constitute a crucial component in the diagnosis of hepatitis B infection as well as in the assessment of immunity to the virus.


Hepatitis C marker

Hepatitis C core antibodies

Hepatitis C core antibodies (HBc-Ab) play a crucial role in assessing immunity and prior exposure to the Hepatitis C virus.


Immunoglobulin E antibodies

IgE antibodies

IgE antibodies are a type of antibody that is formed during allergic reactions and play an important role in the immune system against allergens. When a person is exposed to an allergen, IgE antibodies are formed that attach to mast cells and basophils, leading to the release of histamine that causes symptoms such as itching, nasal congestion and skin rashes.


HIV antibodies

IgG antibodies HIV

IgG antibodies in relation to HIV are the body's specific defense against HIV infections. These antibodies are used to diagnose HIV, conduct screening, and monitor treatment effectiveness.


IgG antibodies to Hepatitis B constitute a central part of the body's immune response to Hepatitis B. By understanding the role and levels of IgG antibodies, one can not only determine immunity to Hepatitis B but also assess previous infections and vaccination status.


Syphilis antibodies

IgG antibodies – Syphilis

IgG antibodies are a type of immunoglobulin (antibody) produced by the immune system in response to a previous infection or exposure to a specific antigen, in this case, the syphilis bacterium Treponema pallidum.


IgM antibodies are a type of antibodies that the body produces as part of its immune defense when exposed to a new infection. In the case of an HIV infection, IgM antibodies are the first antibodies that the body produces in response to the virus after a person has been infected.


IgM antibodies to Hepatitis B are an important part of the immune system's response to an ongoing or recently occurred Hepatitis B infection.


Syphilis antibodies

IgM antibodies – Syphilis

IgM antibodies in Syphilis are a specific type of antibodies that the body produces in response to an early Syphilis infection.

Biomarker that demonstrates the concentration of IgG antibodies against the wuhan mutation, which are the antibodies that a vaccine normally aims to create because the body has the ability to retain them for a long time.


Biomarker that demonstrates the concentration of IgG antibodies against the Omicron mutation, which are the antibodies that a vaccine normally aims to create because the body has the ability to retain them for a long time.



Quality antibodies

Marker that indicates the quality and gives an indication of how long your antibodies block the covid-19 mutation Wuhan.



Quality antibodies

Marker that demonstrates the quality and gives an indication of how long antibodies block the virus, i.e. prevents it from spreading.


Sköldkörtel & ämnesomsättning

TPO Antibodies

TPO antibodies are autoantibodies that are formed against the enzyme TPO in the thyroid gland. TPO is responsible for converting iodine into hormones T4 and T3.


Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies


TRAK, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, can be analyzed to give better insight into what is causing thyroid problems. High TRAK levels can cause an autoimmune reaction and lead to the body's immune system attacking and damaging the thyroid cells.



Total immune response

Biomarker for indication that the body has an initial ability to take care of the Sars-CoV-2 variant Wuhan.



Total immune response

Biomarker for indication that the body has an initial ability to take care of the Sars-CoV-2 variant Omicron.


Specific Biomarker for indication of how the body can prevent the near-term spread of Sars-CoV-2 variant Wuhan.


Specific Biomarker for indication of how the body can prevent the spread of the Sars-CoV-2 variant Omicron in the near term.


When the blood is pumped out of the heart into the body, what is called blood pressure occurs. Blood pressure is a vital process in the body because it controls the flow of oxygen and nutrients to all tissues and organs.


Complete blood count & Blood Differential

Erythrocytes RBC

Red blood cells erythrocytes are the most common type of blood cells in humans. These are responsible, among other things, for transporting oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body.


Complete blood count & Blood Differential

Hematocrit, EVF

Hematocrit, EVF, a percentage of red blood cells in the blood, shows oxygen transport and health.


Total amount of hemoglobin

Hemoglobin mass

Hemoglobin mass is affected by several factors such as number of red blood cells, size and amount of hemoglobin mass in each cell. Higher hemoglobin mass results in better oxygen delivery and reduced fatigue during physical activity.

Lipoprotein Lp(a) is of particular interest because high levels of Lp(a) in the blood have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease including heart attacks and strokes.

Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a sex hormone produced by the testes in men and the ovaries in women. It regulates the number of follicles that develop in the ovaries and thus affects fertility.


Stress hormone


Cortisol is the most important hormone of glucocorticoids and regulates the metabolism of fat, proteins and sugar in the body as well as inhibits inflammation and allergies, and is secreted during stress but can also decrease during prolonged stress or illness.


Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate


DHEA-S is a steroid hormone that is formed in the adrenal cortex and converted into sex hormones. DHEA-S may have benefits such as improving cognitive function and muscle mass, reducing inflammation, and improving immune function.


Female sex hormone


Estradiol is a form of estrogen, one of the most important female sex hormones. It plays an important role in regulating the menstrual cycle, preparing for pregnancy, and maintaining normal female reproductive functions.

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), is a sex hormone produced by the pituitary gland in the brain and has a major impact on reproductive health and fertility in both men and women.


S-testosterone, bioactive

Free testosterone

Free testosterone is a form of testosterone that circulates in the blood and is not bound to any proteins, making it available for the body's tissues to use.


Insulin growth factor 1


IGF-1 is a type of growth factor that is chemically similar to insulin. It is produced mainly in the liver, but also by several other tissues in the body, such as the heart, kidneys and bones. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of growth and development, as well as in cell growth and survival in various tissues.


Luteinizing hormone

Lutropin (LH)

Lutropin, also known as luteinizing hormone (LH), is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a gland located in the brain. LH plays an important role in the reproductive system in both men and women.


Female sex hormone


Progesterone is a female sex hormone that occurs naturally in the body and is important for the female reproductive system. It is produced mainly in the ovaries of the ovulatory cycle and in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands.


Prolactin hormone

Prolactin (PRL)

Prolactin is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a gland in the brain. It plays an important role in the regulation of reproductive and lactation functions in women.


Pregnancy test


Detecting pregnancy early is possible, an increased hCG value can usually be measured just a few days after the egg implantation has taken place.


Growth hormone GH


Somatotropin or GH (Growth Hormone), is a protein hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. The hormone has a central role in the regulation of growth, metabolism and several other biological functions. Analyzes are carried out when doping is suspected at the elite level and to monitor growth during puberty.



T3 Free

T3 Free (Triiodothyronine) is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland and plays an important role in the body's metabolism. A hormonal imbalance in the thyroid gland can lead to thyroid disorders.


Thyroxine (Thyroid gland)

T4 Free

T4 Free is a thyroid hormone that measures the free thyroxine in the blood and plays an important role in body temperature and metabolism. An imbalance may indicate thyroid problems.


Thyroid-stimulating hormone


TSH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. TSH plays an important role in the body's hormone system and stimulates the thyroid gland to produce the hormones T4 and T3.


Male sex hormone


Testosterone is an important male and female sex hormone produced in the testes in males and in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females, as well as from the conversion of androstenedione in peripheral tissues, and is essential for a variety of physiological processes, including sexual development and function.


Alanine aminotransferase


Alate, alanine aminotransferase, is an enzyme found in the cells of the liver and the tissues of the body. The marker Alat, alanine aminotransferase, is used when liver cell damage is suspected.


Alkaline phosphatases


Alkaline phosphatases, ALP, are a type of enzyme that breaks down phosphate groups in organic molecules and are active at a higher pH value (alkaline).


Aspartate Aminotransferase


Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that is normally found inside the cells of the liver. In case of inflammation or irritation in the liver, AST can leak into the blood.



GT, gamma

GT, gamma, is an enzyme that the body uses to break down amino acids. If liver or biliary tract disease is suspected, the GT value can be measured.


Cardiovascular marker

HDL cholesterol

HDL cholesterol, also known as "the good cholesterol", has anti-inflammatory properties and is responsible for transporting unwanted cholesterol to the liver for burning, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Cardiovascular marker

Total cholesterol

Cholesterol is a natural fat that is important to the body because it helps build cells and produce hormones. It is found both in the cells of the body and in certain foods.


Cardiovascular marker

LDL cholesterol

LDL cholesterol, also known as "bad cholesterol", is a form of cholesterol carried in the body that can cause heart disease if there is too much of it.


Cardiovascular marker


Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood and used as a source of energy. They are a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids and play an important role in the body's energy metabolism. High levels of triglycerides in the blood have been shown to be a risk factor for health problems such as cardiovascular disease.




Common symptoms and causes of high and low iron levels. Imbalanced iron levels can cause various conditions that may sometimes require treatment.


Marker of kidney function


Calcium is important for muscles, nerves and heart. We get calcium from dairy products, leafy vegetables and nuts. Vegetarians and vegans can get added calcium from alternatives to milk.


Marker of kidney function


Potassium is an important mineral for body function, especially for muscle cells. A small part of the total amount of potassium is found in body fluids, and when the potassium level is measured, it is measured in the fluid around the blood cells.




Magnesium is a mineral that is important for many of the body's functions, such as metabolism and the functioning of the nerves.


Marker of kidney function


Sodium is a mineral that we get in our diet through, for example, meat, fish and cereals, as well as ordinary table salt, which consists of sodium chloride.


Iron deficiency marker

Transferrin saturation

Transferrin saturation measures the amount of iron bound to transferrin in the blood. Together with other markers, transferrin saturation can be used to investigate and monitor iron deficiency/excessive iron absorption.




Zinc is an important mineral in the human body and plays a role in many biological processes in us, such as our immune system and wound healing.


Kidney and liver marker

Cystatin C

Cystatin C is a protein produced by all cells in the body and filtered by the kidneys. Measuring cystatin C levels can give an indication of kidney function.


Marker of kidney function


Phosphate is an additive, it often appears in combination with, for example, sodium and calcium which form salts - these are called phosphates.


Marker of kidney function


Chloride is an electrolyte that is important for normal cell function and regulation of fluid and salt balance in the body. It is part of the stomach's hydrochloric acid and contributes to food digestion.


Marker of kidney function


Creatinine is formed in your muscles when the body breaks down creatine phosphate (the muscles' energy reserve). The kidneys' job is to filter creatinine.


Marker for indication of Gout


Urate or uric acid is a naturally occurring chemical compound produced in the kidneys and intestines and excreted when the body breaks down substances called purines.


Kidney and liver marker

Urea (UEA)

Urea is a residual product that is formed during the breakdown of proteins and amino acids from the food we put into us


Marker of kidney function

eGFR Cystatin C

eGFR is a marker of kidney function, a low eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) may indicate impaired kidney function.


Kidney and liver marker


Albumin is a protein from the liver that keeps fluid in the bloodstream. In kidney disease, albumin can leak into the urine, resulting in lower albumin levels in the blood and swelling of the body. Low albumin can also indicate poor nutritional status.


Apolipoprotein A1

Apo A1

Apolipoprotein A1 is the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein, HDL-cholesterol "the good cholesterol", and protects against cardiovascular diseases.


Apolipoprotein B

Apo B

Blood fat disorders increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and Apolipoprotein B, a component of LDL cholesterol also known as "the bad cholesterol", contributes to this risk.


Cardiovascular marker

Apo B/Apo A1 (ratio)

By determining the ratio between Apolipoprotein B and Apolipoprotein A1, you get an indication of the balance between them, which is a good indicator for assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease.


White blood cells

Basophilic granulocytes

Basophilic granulocytes are a type of white blood cell formed in the bone marrow from stem cells and are used to assess the health of the bone marrow and to detect any disease or infection in the body.


C-reactive protein


CRP is an abbreviation for C-reactive protein, which is part of our immune system. CRP is measured to check that you do not have an infection or inflammation in the body.


White blood cells

Eosinophilic granulocytes

Eosinophilic granulocytes are white blood cells that are involved in the body's defense against allergies and parasites, are formed in the bone marrow and are used for the diagnosis of diseases such as autoimmune diseases, allergies or parasitic infections, and are included in a differential count of B cells, among other white blood cells.


Iron deficiency/iron storage


The body's iron is stored by ferritin, which is a protein. A normal level of ferritin is important for the body's formation of hemoglobin which takes place through iron.


Diabetes and insulin marker


HbA1c is a blood test that measures your long-term sugar, that is, blood sugar bound to red blood cells over a three-month period. HbA1c shows the level of blood sugar during that period.


Complete blood count & Blood Differential


Hemoglobin transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, it is produced in the bone marrow and is important for the body's function and for the diagnosis of diseases.


High-sensitivity CRP is a marker of inflammation and is used as an indicator of cardiovascular disease risk and low-grade inflammation.


White blood cells


Leukocytes are white blood cells that are important for the body's immune system and protect against infections and diseases by attacking harmful substances.


White blood cells


Lymphocytes are an important type of white blood cell in the immune system that includes B lymphocytes that produce antibodies and T lymphocytes that directly attack infected cells and cancer cells, and also contribute to the memory of previous encounters with foreign substances.


Erythrocyte mean cell volume


MCV stands for erythrocyte mean cell volume. Low or high levels of MCV can indicate anemia and other conditions and diseases.


White blood cells


Monocytes are white blood cells that make up about 2-8% of white blood cells and are important for the immune system which, when they reach the tissue, are transformed into macrophages and are specialized in capturing and destroying foreign particles and bacteria as well as helping to regulate inflammation and coordinate the immune system.


White blood cells

Neutrophil granulocytes

There are several different types of white blood cells, neutrophil granulocytes are one, these have all important tasks for the body's immune system.


HIV antigen

P24 antigen

HIV antigen is a part of the HIV virus, specifically a protein called p24 antigen. This antigen is a structural component of the virus.


Complete blood count


Thrombocytes, also known as platelets, are cells important for blood clotting. They are produced in the bone marrow and help prevent bleeding by forming blood clots in the event of injury. The platelets attach to the site of injury and form a plug to stop the bleeding and protect the body.


Sex hormone-binding globulin


SHBG is a protein produced in the liver that binds to sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol in the blood.




Measuring the sedimentation rate is a classic method to measure how quickly the blood cells sink downwards in a tube during 1 hour.


Iron deficiency marker

TIBC (Iron Binding Capacity)

The blood contains a protein called transferrin that binds iron in the body. The iron can be transported from the intestine to other parts of the body with the help of transferrin. TIBC (iron-binding capacity) measures how much transferrin is in the blood to transport iron.


Iron deficiency marker


Transferrin, a liver-made protein, transports iron to body tissues, including red blood cells, for hemoglobin production. It regulates iron levels and ensures adequate iron for hemoglobin and oxygen transport in the blood.




SARS-CoV-2, better known as the coronavirus that causes the disease COVID-19, belongs to a larger strain of viruses known as betacoronaviruses.


Vitamin B12


Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is necessary for the body's functionality in the nervous system and for the production of red blood cells. Lack of vitamin B12 can indicate health problems that need to be followed up.

The biomarker S-25-hydroxy-Vitamin D is analyzed in order to measure and assess the Vitamin-D balance in the body.

Folate is an important B vitamin that plays a central role in cell growth and function, the production of DNA and RNA, and blood formation.


Hemoglobin concentration


(B)Erc-MCHC stands for "mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration" and represents the mean value of the hemoglobin concentration in the erythrocytes.


Liver marker

Bilirubin (BIB)

Bilirubin is a waste product that is formed as a result of the breakdown of hemoglobin, the red blood pigment, in the body.


Diabetes and insulin marker


The amount of C-peptide in the blood is used to measure the insulin production of the pancreas and helps in the classification of diabetes and treatment choices.


Histamine intolerance marker

Diamine oxidase (DAO)

Diamine oxidase (DAO) is an enzyme that breaks down histamine in the body. A high or low value can indicate various health problems such as histamine intolerance.


Alcohol consumption marker

Phosphatidylethanol (PEth)

PEth (phosphatidylethanol) is a metabolite of alcohol in the form of a membrane-bound phospholipid, which acts as a direct and specific marker of alcohol intake during the last days and weeks.


Diabetes and insulin marker


Glucose is a type of sugar that provides energy and comes from food. Insulin helps move glucose from the blood into the cells. Blood sugar is the level of glucose in the blood and can be high or low. Diabetes affects blood sugar levels and causes high blood sugar.


Marker of muscle damage

Creatine kinase, CK

Creatine kinase is an enzyme that plays a significant role in the body's muscles. Creatine kinase is found in the brain, heart, skeletal muscles, and other body tissues.


Cardiovascular disease risk marker

LDL/HDL ratio

LDL/HDL ratio is an important measurement value for assessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is the ratio of "bad" LDL cholesterol to "good" HDL cholesterol in the blood, where a high ratio indicates an increased risk of disease.


Cardiovascular marker

Non-HDL cholesterol

Non-HDL cholesterol, also known as non-HDL cholesterol, is an important marker for assessing the risk of heart disease. It represents a total amount of cholesterol particles in the blood that can promote the formation of plaques in the blood vessels.


Prostate specific antigen


PSA, which stands for prostate-specific antigen, is a naturally occurring enzyme in the body of both healthy and diseased men, which is produced in the prostate gland. Small amounts of PSA can leak into the blood in healthy men and is a factor taken into account when assessing prostate health.


Pancreatic enzyme

Pancreatic amylase

Pancreatic amylase is an enzyme that is important for the body's digestive ability when digesting carbohydrates. The enzyme is produced in the pancreas and is used to break down starch into small sugar molecules.


Pt-eGFR (crea) relative is a health marker that helps estimate kidney function and can help identify any diseases or other abnormalities.


Pt-eGFR(mean) relative is a calculated mean value of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on creatinine and cystatin C. It is used to assess renal function in suspected or known renal failure.


Alcohol consumption value

S-CDT, low-carbohydrate transferrin

S-CDT, or (carbohydrate-poor transferrin) is a biomarker used to detect long-term and/or high alcohol consumption in combination.


Gastrointestinal marker

Transglutaminase antibodies of IgA

When investigating the autoimmune disease celiac disease, an analysis of transglutaminase antibodies of IgA can be done to find out whether the value is high or not.