What is Anti-Mullerian hormone?
AMH is a sex hormone produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes in men and the granulosa cells in the ovaries in women. The hormone plays an important role in the development of the male and female reproductive system.
In males, AMH is necessary to suppress the development of the female genitalia during embryonic stages and to contribute to the development of the testes. In women, AMH regulates the number of follicles that develop in the ovaries. This is important for maintaining fertility and regulating the menstrual cycle.
When a woman is born, she has a certain amount of follicles. This amount decreases with age and when the number of follicles decreases enough, the woman will enter menopause. AMH levels in the blood can be used as an indicator of the number of follicles remaining in the ovaries. Low levels of AMH can indicate a decrease in the number of follicles and thus reduce the chances of pregnancy.
Why are AMH levels analyzed?
Analysis of Anti-Mullerian hormone is primarily used to give you an insight into your reproductive capacity and fertility. In women, high levels of AMH can indicate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that affects fertility and can cause hormonal imbalances. In men, low levels of AMH can be a sign of infertility or other medical conditions affecting the reproductive system.
AMH levels are also used to assess the risk of ovarian cancer in women. High levels of AMH may indicate an increased risk of ovarian cancer, especially in women who have a hereditary predisposition to the disease.
AMH levels can also be used to monitor hormone treatments when undergoing gender reassignment. In trans men, AMH levels can be used to monitor the effects of testosterone treatment on the reproductive system.