Causes of Sepsis
The causes of sepsis can vary, but they usually arise as a result of the body's strong immune response to an infection. Here are some of the most common causes of sepsis:
Infections: Sepsis usually starts as an infection somewhere in the body such as lung infection (pneumonia), urinary tract infection, skin infection or abdominal infection. Bacteria are common causes but sepsis can also be triggered by viruses or fungi.
Injuries: Sepsis can occur as a result of serious physical injuries such as burns, surgical procedures or damage to internal organs.
Chronic diseases: People with certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, HIV or cancer may be more susceptible to sepsis.
Immune system impairment: A weakened immune system either due to medication, treatment or other factors can increase the risk of sepsis.
Intravenous catheters and other medical devices: The use of catheters or other medical devices can increase the risk of infection and thus sepsis if they are not handled safely.
Urinary tract infections: Sepsis can sometimes begin with an uncontrolled urinary tract infection especially in older adults.
It is important to understand that sepsis can affect people of all ages and health conditions. It is therefore important to follow good hygiene, handle infections correctly and pay attention to early signs of sepsis to reduce the risk of serious complications.
Symptoms Blood poisoning/Sepsis
The symptoms of blood poisoning (sepsis) can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which organ or organs are affected. Here are some common symptoms of sepsis:
Fever or low body temperature: A person with sepsis may have a high fever or an abnormally low body temperature.
Rapid breathing: Breathing may become rapid and shallow and the person may feel short of breath.
Rapid heart rate: The pulse becomes fast and irregular.
Confusion or loss of consciousness: The person may be confused, lethargic, or disoriented.
Extreme fatigue: Sepsis can cause severe fatigue and weakness.
Decreased urine output: Decreased urine production or concentrated urine can be a sign of kidney problems that can occur with sepsis.
Low blood pressure: The person may have dangerously low blood pressure which is called septic shock.
Headache, muscle pain or joint pain: Pain in the head, muscles or joints are common symptoms.
Nausea and vomiting: Stomach discomfort, nausea and vomiting may occur.
Skin changes: The skin may become pale, mottled, bluish or darken.
It is important to note that the symptoms of sepsis can develop quickly and the disease can be life-threatening.
The treatment of blood poisoning (sepsis) is acute and requires immediate medical attention. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential to increase the chance of survival and reduce the risk of complications. The treatment of sepsis usually includes the following measures:
Antibiotics: Because sepsis is most often caused by a bacterial infection, broad-spectrum antibiotics are administered immediately to fight the underlying infection for the condition. After getting test results, the doctor can adjust the antibiotic treatment according to the specific bacteria involved.
Fluid replacement: People with sepsis can develop low blood pressure and low blood volume . Intravenous fluids are used to restore fluid balance and blood pressure.
Vasopressors: If blood pressure does not return to normal levels with fluid replacement, vasopressors (drugs that increase blood pressure) may used to support the body's vascular system.
Oxygen therapy: Patients may need oxygen therapy to ensure adequate oxygenation of the body's organs.
Supportive therapies: Supportive treatments may include mechanical ventilation (breathing support) and dialysis (renal therapy) if organs such as the lungs or kidneys are severely affected.
Surgical intervention: In some cases, especially if a specific source of infection such as an abscess or perforated bowel is known, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain the infection.
It is important that treatment is tailored to each individual patient based on their specific needs and symptoms. Sepsis requires close monitoring and kan require intensive care especially if the patient goes into septic shock.